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LEXICAL RESOURCES FOR IELTS : COLLOCATION – LESSON 05

education noun
adjective

decent , excellent , first-class , good , high – quality , quality , well-rounded

poor

compulsory

formal

Although he had had little formal ~, he could read and write well.

classical

He received a classical ~.

liberal

all-round ( BrE ) , basic , general

He’d received an excellent general ~ in Poland.

comprehensive ( esp. BrE ) , public-school (= provided by the government) ( AmE ) , universal

the party’s policy on comprehensive ~

Nigeria committed itself to universal primary ~.

early – childhood ( esp. AmE ) , preschool

elementary , primary ( esp. BrE )

secondary ( esp. BrE )

adult , continuing , further ( BrE ) , higher , tertiary

a college of further ~

41% had some post-secondary ~.

college ( esp. AmE ) , high-school ( in the US ) , public-school (= private) ( in the UK ) , university

graduate , undergraduate ( both esp. AmE )

remedial ( AmE ) , special

in-service , professional , vocational

military , teacher

maternal , parental

How well a child does at school is influenced by the level of parental ~.

distance , online ( both esp. AmE )

Technology allows distance ~ to occur at all levels.

AIDS , health

sex , sexuality ( AmE )

arts , music , science , etc.

religious , theological

full-time , part-time

public , state

private

parents who choose private ~ for their children

Catholic , Christian , etc.

single – sex

Researchers have found that single-sex ~ may benefit girls.

bilingual , multicultural

verb + education

acquire , get , have , obtain , receive

He was at a disadvantage because of the poor ~ he had received.

pursue

She brought up two children while pursuing a college ~.

deliver , give sb , offer , provide (sb with)

The school provides an excellent general ~.

deny sb

No one is denied an ~ because they are poor in this country.

lack

Many people lack the ~ and training that is needed for these jobs.

enter

students entering higher ~

continue , extend

She went to college to continue her ~.

leave

young people who are just leaving full-time ~

complete , finish

He went to America to complete his ~.

improve , reform

The project seeks to improve ~ for students.

promote

finance sb’s , fund sb’s

They set up an account to fund their daughter’s ~.

education + noun

authority ( in the UK ) , committee , department , ministry ( in the UK ) , sector , service , system

funds provided by the local ~ authority

We need to invest in the higher ~ sector.

officer ( esp. BrE ) , official

minister , secretary ( both in the UK )

policy

reform

reformer

bill

campaign , initiative , programme/program , project , scheme ( BrE )

The department has launched a new health ~ campaign.

activities

They want to broaden their research and ~ activities.

facilities , materials , resources

budget , funding

spending

class , course , session

adult ~ courses

process

Parents should begin the sex ~ process long before it begins in school.

centre/center , college , establishment , institution , provider

setting

children in early ~ settings

community ( esp. AmE ) , world

a policy that has been adopted by the entire ~ community

expert , leader , specialist

requirement ( AmE )

There are additional ~ requirements for nurses on this course.

levels , standards

efforts to improve ~ standards

loan ( AmE ) ( student loan in BrE )

preposition

in ~

students in full-time ~

through ~

We acquire much of our world knowledge through ~.

~ about

~ about danger on the roads

employment noun
adjective

paid , salaried

full-time , part-time

lifelong , lifetime , long-term , permanent , stable , steady

continued

short-term , temporary

regular

casual

formal

seasonal

gainful , meaningful

The company was one of the first to offer meaningful ~ to the blind.

full , total

The government aims to achieve full ~ within three years.

high , low

an area of very low ~

skilled , unskilled

blue-collar , white-collar

factory , office

federal , public

female , male

youth

… of employment

level

policies aimed at maintaining a high level of ~

verb + employment

look for , seek

recent graduates seeking ~

find , gain , get , obtain , secure

He finally secured ~ in a local factory.

accept , take up ( formal )

He took up ~ with the company in May 2002.

give up , leave , lose

She lost her ~ when the company closed.

terminate

One company terminated his ~ after 30 days.

give sb , offer sb

create , generate , provide

This investment will certainly create ~ in the area.

The steelworks provided ~ for thousands of people.

ensure , guarantee

boost , increase , raise , stimulate

policies designed to stimulate ~

employment + verb

grow , increase , rise

decline , fall

employment + noun

opportunities , options , possibilities , prospects

There are few ~ prospects in the town for unqualified young people.

rights

discrimination ( esp. AmE )

laws prohibiting ~ discrimination

training

programme/program ( esp. AmE )

a state-subsidized ~ programme/program

agency , service

status

The survey studied the ~ status of people within the community.

history

Interviewers will look carefully at a candidate’s ~ history.

agreement , contract

conditions , terms

data , figures , records , statistics

levels , rate

picture , situation

The ~ picture is not good.

patterns , trends

growth

market

graduates entering the ~ market

policy

the government’s full-employment policy

law , legislation

lawyer

tax ( AmE )

practices

The company’s ~ practices have been widely criticized.

preposition

in ~

Most of last year’s graduates are now in ~.

out of ~

She had been out of ~ for three years.

phrases

conditions of ~ , terms of ~

Union negotiate conditions of ~.

a contract of ~

patterns of ~ , trends of ~

significant changes in patterns of ~

encounter noun
adjective

brief

I did not see him again, except for a brief ~ on a train.

first , initial

last , previous

early

her early ~s with contemporary art

recent

final

casual , chance , random , unexpected

It was a chance ~ that led to the setting up of the new political party.

close , intimate

I decided not to risk a second close ~ with the snakes.

face-to-face , personal

direct

The press conference was her first direct ~ with the media.

fateful , strange

aggressive , armed , dangerous , unpleasant , violent

cultural , social

the language we use in everyday social ~s

colonial

the colonial ~ of indigenous craftsmen with Europeans

erotic , sexual

romantic

homosexual

alien

examination of UFO sightings and alien ~s

verb + encounter

have

I had my first ~ with him two years ago.

survive

Few men survive an ~ with her!

win

avoid

recall , remember

describe

encounter + verb

occur , take place

result in sth

preposition

~ between

violent ~s between police and protesters

~ with

my first ~ with my new boss

encounter verb
adverb

commonly , frequently , often , regularly

Walruses were commonly ~ed in the Shetland Islands until recently.

normally

occasionally

rarely

never

first

an idea I first ~ed when I was in the army

previously

verb + encounter

be likely to

What are the difficulties you are most likely to ~?

Encounter is used with these nouns as the object: barrier , delay , difficulty , discrimination , hazard , hostility , interference , obstacle , opposition , prejudice , problem , resistance , roadblock , situation

entertainment noun
adjective

lavish

pure

It’s pure ~ and there’s nothing wrong with that.

good

escapist , mindless

free

live

evening , nightly

Passengers can enjoy free nightly ~.

half-time , pre – game ( AmE ) , pre – match ( BrE )

the half-time ~ at football games

home , in-flight , public , street

mass , popular

Movies were the new mass ~.

family , light , wholesome

Vote for your top light ~ show.

adult

digital , video

interactive

musical , sports

verb + entertainment

lay on ( BrE ) , offer , provide , put on

They provided lavish ~ for their guests.

enjoy

entertainment + noun

business , company , industry , media , world

centre/center , complex , venue

district ( esp. AmE )

Tokyo’s ~ district

programme/program

show

news

The leading piece of ~ news in the US is the Oscars.

value

The movies were bought for their ~ value.

licence ( BrE )

preposition

for sb’s ~

Ladies and gentlemen, for your ~, we present Magic Man.

phrases

a form of ~

a place of ~

places of ~ such as bars

a source of ~

The television was his only source of ~.

the world of ~

stars from the world of ~

environment noun
1 conditions of the place where you are

adjective

immediate

Cold-blooded animals depend on the temperature of their immediate ~.

external

alien , new , unfamiliar

natural

marine life in its natural ~

changing , ever – changing ( esp. AmE )

comfortable , protected , safe , secure , stable

friendly , supportive

hospitable , pleasant

clean , healthy

stimulating

favourable/favorable , ideal

This period provided an ideal ~ for the spread of communism.

uncertain , unstable

dangerous

noisy

competitive

stressful

extreme , harsh , hostile

fragile

Walkers can unwittingly damage the fragile ~ in which the birds live.

built , urban

the quality of our natural and built ~s

rural

cold , warm

aquatic , coastal , forest , marine , mountain

domestic , family , home

Children learn best in their home ~.

physical

cultural , emotional , social

office , work , working , workplace

A comfortable working ~ will increase productivity.

online

classroom , educational , learning , school , teaching , training

economic , financial

Investors are showing more caution in the current economic ~.

political

business , commercial , corporate

She now had to transfer her design skills to a commercial ~.

professional

verb + environment

create , foster , provide

parents who strive to provide a stimulating ~ for their children to grow up in

adapt to

creatures that have adapted to hostile desert ~s

alter , change

shape

improve

explore

The cat walked around, exploring its new ~.

control

preposition

in an/the ~

people working in increasingly competitive ~s

~ for

an ~ for economic growth

~ of

an ~ of fear

phrases

an ~ conducive to sth

The hospital architect tries to create an ~ conducive to healing.

today’s ~

In today’s competitive business ~, companies focus on minimizing costs.

2 the environment the natural world

adjective

natural

global , world

local

verb + the environment

preserve , protect , safeguard , save

The government should do more to protect the ~.

clean up , improve

affect , have an impact on , impact ( AmE )

factors that have a huge impact on the ~

damage , harm , pollute

industries which damage the ~

threaten

environment + noun

agency , committee , department , group ( all esp. BrE )

chief ( BrE ) , minister ( esp. BrE )

spokesman , spokeswoman ( both BrE )

correspondent , editor ( both BrE )

policy ( esp. BrE )

protection ( esp. BrE )

issues

preposition

in the ~

the amount of carbon in the ~

phrases

conservation of the ~ , protection of the ~

damage to the ~

farming methods that minimize damage to the ~

harmful to the ~

The label identifies the products that are least harmful to the ~.

pollution of the ~

© Oxford University Press, 2009

excess noun
1 too much of sth

adjective

rhetorical , stylistic , verbal

His statements cannot be simply dismissed as rhetorical ~.

financial

scandalous , wretched ( AmE )

Washington has always been a city of wretched ~es.

alcoholic ( BrE )

worst ~es

the worst ~es of the 1980s

verb + excess

avoid , contain , curb

‘Avoid excess’ is the golden rule for a healthy life.

commit ~es , perpetrate ~es

the worst ~es committed by the occupying army

preposition

in ~

The drug can be harmful if taken in ~.

to ~

They never smoked or drank to ~.

2 an amount by which sth is larger than sth else

adjective

large

slight

preposition

in ~ of

The car can travel at speeds in ~ of 150 miles per hour.

~ of

a large ~ of gas

excessive
verbs

appear , be , seem

become

consider sth , regard sth as , see sth as

He considered the level of tax ~.

adverb

grossly , wildly

rather , somewhat

a little , slightly , etc.

perhaps

The influence of her ideas was perhaps ~.

clearly , manifestly ( BrE , law )

The sentence which was imposed was manifestly ~.

Excessive is used with these nouns: alcohol , amount , bleeding , bureaucracy , caution , claim , cleanliness , consumption , delay , demand , dependence , drinking , emphasis , enthusiasm , expenditure , exposure , force , growth , heat , indulgence , intake , level , overtime , politeness , preoccupation , rainfall , regulation , reliance , secrecy , strain , stress , taxation , use , violence , wastage , wear , workload , zeal